Response and Decoders#

Response#

class urllib3.response.BaseHTTPResponse(*, headers=None, status, version, reason, decode_content, request_url, retries=None)#

Bases: IOBase

Parameters:
CONTENT_DECODERS = ['gzip', 'x-gzip', 'deflate', 'br', 'zstd']#
DECODER_ERROR_CLASSES: tuple[type[Exception], ...] = (<class 'OSError'>, <class 'zlib.error'>, <class 'brotli.error'>, <class 'zstd.ZstdError'>)#
REDIRECT_STATUSES = [301, 302, 303, 307, 308]#
close()#

Flush and close the IO object.

This method has no effect if the file is already closed.

Return type:

None

property connection: BaseHTTPConnection | None#
property data: bytes#
drain_conn()#
Return type:

None

get_redirect_location()#

Should we redirect and where to?

Returns:

Truthy redirect location string if we got a redirect status code and valid location. None if redirect status and no location. False if not a redirect status code.

Return type:

str | None | Literal[False]

getheader(name, default=None)#
Parameters:
  • name (str) –

  • default (str | None) –

Return type:

str | None

getheaders()#
Return type:

HTTPHeaderDict

geturl()#
Return type:

str | None

info()#
Return type:

HTTPHeaderDict

json()#

Deserializes the body of the HTTP response as a Python object.

The body of the HTTP response must be encoded using UTF-8, as per RFC 8529 Section 8.1.

To use a custom JSON decoder pass the result of HTTPResponse.data to your custom decoder instead.

If the body of the HTTP response is not decodable to UTF-8, a UnicodeDecodeError will be raised. If the body of the HTTP response is not a valid JSON document, a json.JSONDecodeError will be raised.

Read more here.

Returns:

The body of the HTTP response as a Python object.

Return type:

Any

read(amt=None, decode_content=None, cache_content=False)#
Parameters:
  • amt (int | None) –

  • decode_content (bool | None) –

  • cache_content (bool) –

Return type:

bytes

read1(amt=None, decode_content=None)#
Parameters:
  • amt (int | None) –

  • decode_content (bool | None) –

Return type:

bytes

read_chunked(amt=None, decode_content=None)#
Parameters:
  • amt (int | None) –

  • decode_content (bool | None) –

Return type:

Iterator[bytes]

readinto(b)#
Parameters:

b (bytearray) –

Return type:

int

release_conn()#
Return type:

None

property retries: Retry | None#
stream(amt=65536, decode_content=None)#
Parameters:
  • amt (int | None) –

  • decode_content (bool | None) –

Return type:

Iterator[bytes]

property url: str | None#
class urllib3.response.HTTPResponse(body='', headers=None, status=0, version=0, reason=None, preload_content=True, decode_content=True, original_response=None, pool=None, connection=None, msg=None, retries=None, enforce_content_length=True, request_method=None, request_url=None, auto_close=True)#

Bases: BaseHTTPResponse

HTTP Response container.

Backwards-compatible with http.client.HTTPResponse but the response body is loaded and decoded on-demand when the data property is accessed. This class is also compatible with the Python standard library’s io module, and can hence be treated as a readable object in the context of that framework.

Extra parameters for behaviour not present in http.client.HTTPResponse:

Parameters:
  • preload_content (bool) – If True, the response’s body will be preloaded during construction.

  • decode_content (bool) – If True, will attempt to decode the body based on the ‘content-encoding’ header.

  • original_response (_HttplibHTTPResponse | None) – When this HTTPResponse wrapper is generated from an http.client.HTTPResponse object, it’s convenient to include the original for debug purposes. It’s otherwise unused.

  • retries (Retry | None) – The retries contains the last Retry that was used during the request.

  • enforce_content_length (bool) – Enforce content length checking. Body returned by server must match value of Content-Length header, if present. Otherwise, raise error.

  • body (_TYPE_BODY) –

  • headers (Mapping[str, str] | Mapping[bytes, bytes] | None) –

  • status (int) –

  • version (int) –

  • reason (str | None) –

  • pool (HTTPConnectionPool | None) –

  • connection (HTTPConnection | None) –

  • msg (_HttplibHTTPMessage | None) –

  • request_method (str | None) –

  • request_url (str | None) –

  • auto_close (bool) –

auto_close#
status#
headers#
CONTENT_DECODERS = ['gzip', 'x-gzip', 'deflate', 'br', 'zstd']#
DECODER_ERROR_CLASSES: tuple[type[Exception], ...] = (<class 'OSError'>, <class 'zlib.error'>, <class 'brotli.error'>, <class 'zstd.ZstdError'>)#
REDIRECT_STATUSES = [301, 302, 303, 307, 308]#
close()#

Flush and close the IO object.

This method has no effect if the file is already closed.

Return type:

None

property closed: bool#
property connection: HTTPConnection | None#
property data: bytes#
drain_conn()#

Read and discard any remaining HTTP response data in the response connection.

Unread data in the HTTPResponse connection blocks the connection from being released back to the pool.

Return type:

None

fileno()#

Returns underlying file descriptor if one exists.

OSError is raised if the IO object does not use a file descriptor.

Return type:

int

flush()#

Flush write buffers, if applicable.

This is not implemented for read-only and non-blocking streams.

Return type:

None

get_redirect_location()#

Should we redirect and where to?

Returns:

Truthy redirect location string if we got a redirect status code and valid location. None if redirect status and no location. False if not a redirect status code.

Return type:

str | None | Literal[False]

getheader(name, default=None)#
Parameters:
  • name (str) –

  • default (str | None) –

Return type:

str | None

getheaders()#
Return type:

HTTPHeaderDict

geturl()#
Return type:

str | None

info()#
Return type:

HTTPHeaderDict

isatty()#

Return whether this is an ‘interactive’ stream.

Return False if it can’t be determined.

isclosed()#
Return type:

bool

json()#

Deserializes the body of the HTTP response as a Python object.

The body of the HTTP response must be encoded using UTF-8, as per RFC 8529 Section 8.1.

To use a custom JSON decoder pass the result of HTTPResponse.data to your custom decoder instead.

If the body of the HTTP response is not decodable to UTF-8, a UnicodeDecodeError will be raised. If the body of the HTTP response is not a valid JSON document, a json.JSONDecodeError will be raised.

Read more here.

Returns:

The body of the HTTP response as a Python object.

Return type:

Any

length_remaining: int | None#
read(amt=None, decode_content=None, cache_content=False)#

Similar to http.client.HTTPResponse.read(), but with two additional parameters: decode_content and cache_content.

Parameters:
  • amt (int | None) – How much of the content to read. If specified, caching is skipped because it doesn’t make sense to cache partial content as the full response.

  • decode_content (bool | None) – If True, will attempt to decode the body based on the ‘content-encoding’ header.

  • cache_content (bool) – If True, will save the returned data such that the same result is returned despite of the state of the underlying file object. This is useful if you want the .data property to continue working after having .read() the file object. (Overridden if amt is set.)

Return type:

bytes

read1(amt=None, decode_content=None)#

Similar to http.client.HTTPResponse.read1 and documented in io.BufferedReader.read1(), but with an additional parameter: decode_content.

Parameters:
  • amt (int | None) – How much of the content to read.

  • decode_content (bool | None) – If True, will attempt to decode the body based on the ‘content-encoding’ header.

Return type:

bytes

read_chunked(amt=None, decode_content=None)#

Similar to HTTPResponse.read(), but with an additional parameter: decode_content.

Parameters:
  • amt (int | None) – How much of the content to read. If specified, caching is skipped because it doesn’t make sense to cache partial content as the full response.

  • decode_content (bool | None) – If True, will attempt to decode the body based on the ‘content-encoding’ header.

Return type:

Generator[bytes, None, None]

readable()#

Return whether object was opened for reading.

If False, read() will raise OSError.

Return type:

bool

readinto(b)#
Parameters:

b (bytearray) –

Return type:

int

readline(size=-1, /)#

Read and return a line from the stream.

If size is specified, at most size bytes will be read.

The line terminator is always b’n’ for binary files; for text files, the newlines argument to open can be used to select the line terminator(s) recognized.

readlines(hint=-1, /)#

Return a list of lines from the stream.

hint can be specified to control the number of lines read: no more lines will be read if the total size (in bytes/characters) of all lines so far exceeds hint.

release_conn()#
Return type:

None

property retries: Retry | None#
seek(offset, whence=0, /)#

Change the stream position to the given byte offset.

offset

The stream position, relative to ‘whence’.

whence

The relative position to seek from.

The offset is interpreted relative to the position indicated by whence. Values for whence are:

  • os.SEEK_SET or 0 – start of stream (the default); offset should be zero or positive

  • os.SEEK_CUR or 1 – current stream position; offset may be negative

  • os.SEEK_END or 2 – end of stream; offset is usually negative

Return the new absolute position.

seekable()#

Return whether object supports random access.

If False, seek(), tell() and truncate() will raise OSError. This method may need to do a test seek().

stream(amt=65536, decode_content=None)#

A generator wrapper for the read() method. A call will block until amt bytes have been read from the connection or until the connection is closed.

Parameters:
  • amt (int | None) – How much of the content to read. The generator will return up to much data per iteration, but may return less. This is particularly likely when using compressed data. However, the empty string will never be returned.

  • decode_content (bool | None) – If True, will attempt to decode the body based on the ‘content-encoding’ header.

Return type:

Generator[bytes, None, None]

supports_chunked_reads()#

Checks if the underlying file-like object looks like a http.client.HTTPResponse object. We do this by testing for the fp attribute. If it is present we assume it returns raw chunks as processed by read_chunked().

Return type:

bool

tell()#

Obtain the number of bytes pulled over the wire so far. May differ from the amount of content returned by :meth:urllib3.response.HTTPResponse.read if bytes are encoded on the wire (e.g, compressed).

Return type:

int

truncate()#

Truncate file to size bytes.

File pointer is left unchanged. Size defaults to the current IO position as reported by tell(). Returns the new size.

property url: str | None#

Returns the URL that was the source of this response. If the request that generated this response redirected, this method will return the final redirect location.

writable()#

Return whether object was opened for writing.

If False, write() will raise OSError.

writelines(lines, /)#

Write a list of lines to stream.

Line separators are not added, so it is usual for each of the lines provided to have a line separator at the end.

Decoders#

Decoder classes are used for transforming compressed HTTP bodies using the Content-Encoding into their uncompressed binary representation.

class urllib3.response.BrotliDecoder#
class urllib3.response.DeflateDecoder#
class urllib3.response.GzipDecoder#
class urllib3.response.ZstdDecoder#
class urllib3.response.MultiDecoder(modes)#
From RFC7231:

If one or more encodings have been applied to a representation, the sender that applied the encodings MUST generate a Content-Encoding header field that lists the content codings in the order in which they were applied.

Parameters:

modes (str) –