Read the v2.0 migration guide for help upgrading to the latest version of urllib3.
HTTPResponse.read()to raise an error when calling with
decode_content=Trueto prevent data loss (#2800).
.getheader()to previous behavior in 1.26.x. Instead we are deprecating these methods in favor of
HTTPResponse.headers.get(). Both deprecated methods will be removed in v2.1.0 (#2814)
Fixed an issue where parsing a URL with leading zeroes in the port would be rejected even when the port number after removing the zeroes was valid. (#2806)
Fixed deprecation warning when using cryptography v39.0.0. This fix requires using pyOpenSSL>=17.1.0 and cryptography>=1.9. (#2829)
Read the v2.0 migration guide for help upgrading to the latest version of urllib3.
Added type hints to the
ssl_maximum_versionoptions which set
Added support for Zstandard (RFC 8878) when
zstandard1.18.0 or later is installed. Added the
zstdextra which installs the
urllib3.response.BaseHTTPResponseclass. All future response classes will be subclasses of
urllib3.requestfunction which uses a preconfigured module-global
FullPoolErrorwhich is raised when
PoolManager(block=True)and a connection is returned to a full pool (#2197).
HTTPHeaderDictto the top-level
ConnectionPool.request()methods to send JSON bodies in requests. Using this parameter will set the header
Content-Typeisn’t already defined. Added support for parsing JSON response bodies with
Added support for configuring header merging behavior with HTTPHeaderDict When using a
HTTPHeaderDictto provide headers for a request, by default duplicate header values will be repeated. But if
combine=Trueis passed into a call to
HTTPHeaderDict.add, then the added header value will be merged in with an existing value into a comma-separated list (
X-My-Header: foo, bar) (#2242).
NameResolutionErrorexception when a DNS error occurs (#2305).
Added a configurable
backoff_maxparameter to the
Retryclass. If a custom
backoff_maxis provided to the
Retryclass, it will replace the
authorityproperty to the Url class as per RFC 3986 3.2. This property should be used in place of
netlocfor users who want to include the userinfo (auth) component of the URI (#2520).
HTTPConnection.set_tunnelto configure the scheme of the origin being tunnelled to (#1985).
Removed fallback on certificate
match_hostname()function. This behavior was deprecated in May 2000 in RFC 2818. Instead only
subjectAltNameis used to verify the hostname by default. To enable verifying the hostname against
SSLContext.hostname_checks_common_name = True(#2113).
Removed support for Python with an
sslmodule compiled with LibreSSL, CiscoSSL, wolfSSL, and all other OpenSSL alternatives. Python is moving to require OpenSSL with PEP 644 (#2168).
Removed support for OpenSSL versions earlier than 1.1.1 or that don’t have SNI support. When an incompatible OpenSSL version is detected an
ImportErroris raised (#2168).
Removed the list of default ciphers for OpenSSL 1.1.1+ and SecureTransport as their own defaults are already secure (#2082).
urllib3.contrib.appengine.AppEngineManagerand support for Google App Engine Standard Environment (#2044).
Removed default value of
urllib3.PoolManager.connection_from_pool_key. This change should have no effect on users as the default value of
Nonewas an invalid option and was never used (#1897).
urllib3.request.RequestMethodshas been made a private API. This change was made to ensure that
from urllib3 import requestimported the top-level
request()function instead of the
Removed support for SSLv3.0 from the
urllib3.contrib.pyopenssleven when support is available from the compiled OpenSSL library (#2233).
Removed the deprecated
USE_DEFAULT_SSLCONTEXT_CIPHERS, from the private module
HTTPConnectionPool. Previously this was only used to call
HTTPSConnection. This is now determined from the
urllib3.response.HTTPResponse.readto respect the semantics of
io.BufferedIOBaseregardless of compression. Specifically, this method:
Only returns an empty bytes object to indicate EOF (that is, the response has been fully consumed).
Never returns more bytes than requested.
Can issue any number of system calls: zero, one or multiple.
If you want each
urllib3.response.HTTPResponse.readcall to issue a single system call, you need to disable decompression by setting
ssl_versionto instead set the corresponding
SSLContext.maximum_versionvalues. Regardless of
SSLContextobjects are now constructed using
TLSVersion.TLSv1_2in line with Python 3.10 (#2373).
ProxyErrorto wrap any connection error (timeout, TLS, DNS) that occurs when connecting to the proxy (#2482).
urllib3.util.create_urllib3_contextto not override the system cipher suites with a default value. The new default will be cipher suites configured by the operating system (#2168).
multipart/form-dataheader parameter formatting matches the WHATWG HTML Standard as of 2021-06-10. Control characters in filenames are no longer percent encoded (#2257).
urllib3.HTTPConnection.getresponseto return an instance of
Changed the error raised when connecting via HTTPS when the
sslmodule isn’t available from
HTTPConnection.request()to always use lowercase chunk boundaries when sending requests with
Changed enforce_content_length default to True, preventing silent data loss when reading streamed responses (#2514).
Changed internal implementation of
collections.OrderedDictfor better performance (#2080).
urllib3.contrib.pyopensslmodule to wrap
Changed usage of the deprecated
Changed all parameters in the
HTTPSConnectionconstructors to be keyword-only except
HTTPConnection.getresponse()to set the socket timeout from
HTTPConnection.timeoutvalue before reading data from the socket. This previously was done manually by the
HTTPConnectionPoolto more closely match how the property is used (value in
Changed name of
Changed TLS handshakes to use
SSLContext.check_hostnamewhen possible (#2452).
server_hostnameto behave like other parameters only used by
Changed the default
blocksizeto 16KB to match OpenSSL’s default read amounts (#2348).
HTTPResponse.getheader()which will be removed in urllib3 v2.1.0. Instead use
HTTPResponse.headers.get(name, default). (#1543, #2814).
urllib3.contrib.pyopensslmodule which will be removed in urllib3 v2.1.0 (#2691).
urllib3.contrib.securetransportmodule which will be removed in urllib3 v2.1.0 (#2692).
ssl_versionoption in favor of
ssl_versionwill be removed in urllib3 v2.1.0 (#2110).
strictparameter as it’s not longer needed in Python 3.x. It will be removed in urllib3 v2.1.0 (#2267)
NewConnectionError.poolattribute which will be removed in urllib3 v2.1.0 (#2271).
format_header_paramin favor of
RequestField.header_formatterparameter which will be removed in urllib3 v2.1.0 (#2257).
HTTPSConnection.set_cert()method. Instead pass parameters to the
HTTPConnection.request_chunked()method which will be removed in urllib3 v2.1.0. Instead pass
Fixed thread-safety issue where accessing a PoolManager with many distinct origins would cause connection pools to be closed while requests are in progress (#1252).
Fixed an issue where an
HTTPConnectioninstance would erroneously reuse the socket read timeout value from reading the previous response instead of a newly configured connect timeout. Instead now if
HTTPConnection.timeoutis updated before sending the next request the new timeout value will be used (#2645).
socket.error.errnowhen raised from pyOpenSSL’s
Fixed the default value of
Fixed a bug where
headerswould be modified by the
Fixed a reference cycle bug in
Fixed a socket leak if
Fixed an issue where parsing a URL with leading zeroes in the port would be rejected even when the port number after removing the zeroes was valid.
Fixed a deprecation warning when using cryptography v39.0.0.
Requires-Pythonpackaging metadata field.
Deprecated the urllib3[secure] extra and the urllib3.contrib.pyopenssl module. Both will be removed in v2.x. See this GitHub issue for justification and info on how to migrate.
Fixed an issue where reading more than 2 GiB in a call to
HTTPResponse.readwould raise an
OverflowErroron Python 3.9 and earlier.
Removed support for Python 3.5
Fixed an issue where a
ProxyErrorrecommending configuring the proxy as HTTP instead of HTTPS could appear even when an HTTPS proxy wasn’t configured.
urllib3[brotli]extra to favor installing Brotli libraries that are still receiving updates like
brotlipy. This change does not impact behavior of urllib3, only which dependencies are installed.
Fixed a socket leaking when
HTTPSConnection.connect()raises an exception.
server_hostnamebeing forwarded from
HTTPConnectionPoolwhen requesting an HTTP URL. Should only be forwarded when requesting an HTTPS URL.
Added extra message to
urllib3.exceptions.ProxyErrorwhen urllib3 detects that a proxy is configured to use HTTPS but the proxy itself appears to only use HTTP.
Added a mention of the size of the connection pool when discarding a connection due to the pool being full.
Added explicit support for Python 3.11.
Retry.MAX_BACKOFFclass property in favor of
Retry.DEFAULT_MAX_BACKOFFto better match the rest of the default parameter names.
Retry.MAX_BACKOFFis removed in v2.0.
Changed location of the vendored
urllib3.util.ssl_match_hostnameto ensure Python 3.10+ compatibility after being repackaged by downstream distributors.
Fixed absolute imports, all imports are now relative.
Fixed a bug with HTTPS hostname verification involving IP addresses and lack of SNI. (Issue #2400)
Fixed a bug where IPv6 braces weren’t stripped during certificate hostname matching. (Issue #2240)
urllib3.contrib.ntlmpoolmodule. urllib3 is not able to support it properly due to reasons listed in this issue. If you are a user of this module please leave a comment.
HTTPConnection.request_chunked()to not erroneously emit multiple
Transfer-Encodingheaders in the case that one is already specified.
Fixed typo in deprecation message to recommend
Fixed deprecation warnings emitted in Python 3.10.
sixlibrary to 1.16.0.
Improved performance of URL parser when splitting the authority component.
Changed behavior of the default
SSLContextwhen connecting to HTTPS proxy during HTTPS requests. The default
Fixed bytes and string comparison issue with headers (Pull #2141)
ProxySchemeUnknownerror message to be more actionable if the user supplies a proxy URL without a scheme. (Pull #2107)
Fixed an issue where
CERT_REQUIREDwouldn’t be imported properly on Python 2.7.8 and earlier (Pull #2052)
Fixed an issue where two
User-Agentheaders would be sent if a
User-Agentheader key is passed as
NOTE: urllib3 v2.0 will drop support for Python 2. Read more in the v2.0 Roadmap.
Added support for HTTPS proxies contacting HTTPS servers (Pull #1923, Pull #1806)
Deprecated negotiating TLSv1 and TLSv1.1 by default. Users that still wish to use TLS earlier than 1.2 without a deprecation warning should opt-in explicitly by setting
ssl_version=ssl.PROTOCOL_TLSv1_1(Pull #2002) Starting in urllib3 v2.0: Connections that receive a ``DeprecationWarning`` will fail
Retry(method_whitelist=...)in favor of
Retry(allowed_methods=...)(Pull #2000) Starting in urllib3 v2.0: Deprecated options will be removed
User-Agentheader to every request (Pull #1750)
Hostheaders from being automatically emitted with requests (Pull #2018)
transfer-encoding: chunkedrequest data and framing into the same
socket.send()call (Pull #1906)
http/1.1ALPN identifier with every TLS handshake by default (Pull #1894)
Properly terminate SecureTransport connections when CA verification fails (Pull #1977)
Don’t emit an
server_hostname=Noneto SecureTransport (Pull #1903)
Disabled requesting TLSv1.2 session tickets as they weren’t being used by urllib3 (Pull #1970)
BrokenPipeErrorwhen writing request body after the server has closed the socket (Pull #1524)
ssl.SSLErrorthat can be raised from reading a socket (e.g. “bad MAC”) into an
Fix retry backoff time parsed from
Retry-Afterheader when given in the HTTP date format. The HTTP date was parsed as the local timezone rather than accounting for the timezone in the HTTP date (typically UTC) (Pull #1932, Pull #1935, Pull #1938, Pull #1949)
Fix issue where an error would be raised when the
SSLKEYLOGFILEenvironment variable was set to the empty string. Now
SSLContext.keylog_fileis not set in this situation (Pull #2016)
Added support for
SSLKEYLOGFILEenvironment variable for logging TLS session keys with use with programs like Wireshark for decrypting captured web traffic (Pull #1867)
Fixed loading of SecureTransport libraries on macOS Big Sur due to the new dynamic linker cache (Pull #1905)
Collapse chunked request bodies data and framing into one call to
send()to reduce the number of TCP packets by 2-4x (Pull #1906)
ConnectionPoolif the pool was empty when requesting a connection (Pull #1866)
InvalidProxyConfigurationWarningwhich is raised when erroneously specifying an HTTPS proxy URL. urllib3 doesn’t currently support connecting to HTTPS proxies but will soon be able to and we would like users to migrate properly without much breakage.
See this GitHub issue for more information on how to fix your proxy config. (Pull #1851)
Drain connection after
PoolManagerredirect (Pull #1817)
SSLErrorfor all backends (Pull #1812)
Allow the CA certificate data to be passed as a string (Pull #1804)
ValueErrorif method contains control characters (Pull #1800)
Drop support for EOL Python 3.4 (Pull #1774)
Optimize _encode_invalid_chars (Pull #1787)
chunkedparameter on retries (Pull #1715, Pull #1734)
SERVER_SOFTWAREin App Engine (Pull #1704, Issue #1470)
Fix issue where URL fragment was sent within the request target. (Pull #1732)
Fix issue where an empty query section in a URL would fail to parse. (Pull #1732)
Remove TLS 1.3 support in SecureTransport due to Apple removing support (Pull #1703)
Fix issue where tilde (
~) characters were incorrectly percent-encoded in the path. (Pull #1692)
Add mitigation for BPO-37428 affecting Python <3.7.4 and OpenSSL 1.1.1+ which caused certificate verification to be enabled when using
cert_reqs=CERT_NONE. (Issue #1682)
Propagate Retry-After header settings to subsequent retries. (Pull #1607)
Fix edge case where Retry-After header was still respected even when explicitly opted out of. (Pull #1607)
Remove dependency on
rfc3986for URL parsing.
Fix issue where URLs containing invalid characters within
Url.authwould raise an exception instead of percent-encoding those characters.
Add support for
HTTPResponse.auto_close = Falsewhich makes HTTP responses work well with BufferedReaders and other
iomodule features. (Pull #1652)
Percent-encode invalid characters in URL for
HTTPSConnectionto load system CA certificates when
ssl_contextare unspecified. (Pull #1608, Issue #1603)
Upgrade bundled rfc3986 to v1.3.2. (Pull #1609, Issue #1605)
is_ipaddressto not detect IPvFuture addresses. (Pull #1583)
parse_urlto percent-encode invalid characters within the path, query, and target components. (Pull #1586)
Add support for Google’s
Brotlipackage. (Pull #1572, Pull #1579)
Upgrade bundled rfc3986 to v1.3.1 (Pull #1578)
Require and validate certificates by default when using HTTPS (Pull #1507)
urllib3.utils.parse_url()to be RFC 3986 compliant. (Pull #1487)
Added support for
HTTPSConnectionPoolto use encrypted
key_filewithout creating your own
SSLContextobject. (Pull #1489)
Add TLSv1.3 support to CPython, pyOpenSSL, and SecureTransport
SSLContextimplementations. (Pull #1496)
Switched the default multipart header encoder from RFC 2231 to HTML 5 working draft. (Issue #303, Pull #1492)
Fixed issue where OpenSSL would block if an encrypted client private key was given and no password was given. Instead an
SSLErroris raised. (Pull #1489)
Added support for Brotli content encoding. It is enabled automatically if
brotlipypackage is installed which can be requested with
urllib3[brotli]extra. (Pull #1532)
Drop ciphers using DSS key exchange from default TLS cipher suites. Improve default ciphers when using SecureTransport. (Pull #1496)
Implemented a more efficient
HTTPResponse.__iter__()method. (Issue #1483)
Apply fix for CVE-2019-9740. (Pull #1591)
Don’t load system certificates by default when any other
ssl_contextparameters are specified.
Remove Authorization header regardless of case when redirecting to cross-site. (Issue #1510)
Add support for IPv6 addresses in subjectAltName section of certificates. (Issue #1269)
Remove quadratic behavior within
Restored functionality of
create_urllib3_context(). (Issue #1462)
Allow key_server_hostname to be specified when initializing a PoolManager to allow custom SNI to be overridden. (Pull #1449)
Test against Python 3.7 on AppVeyor. (Pull #1453)
Early-out ipv6 checks when running on App Engine. (Pull #1450)
Change ambiguous description of backoff_factor (Pull #1436)
Add ability to handle multiple Content-Encodings (Issue #1441 and Pull #1442)
Skip DNS names that can’t be idna-decoded when using pyOpenSSL (Issue #1405).
Add a server_hostname parameter to HTTPSConnection which allows for overriding the SNI hostname sent in the handshake. (Pull #1397)
Drop support for EOL Python 2.6 (Pull #1429 and Pull #1430)
Fixed bug where responses with header Content-Type: message/* erroneously raised HeaderParsingError, resulting in a warning being logged. (Pull #1439)
Move urllib3 to src/urllib3 (Pull #1409)
Allow providing a list of headers to strip from requests when redirecting to a different host. Defaults to the
Authorizationheader. Different headers can be set via
Retry.remove_headers_on_redirect. (Issue #1316)
Dropped Python 3.3 support. (Pull #1242)
Put the connection back in the pool when calling stream() or read_chunked() on a chunked HEAD response. (Issue #1234)
Fixed pyOpenSSL-specific ssl client authentication issue when clients attempted to auth via certificate + chain (Issue #1060)
Add the port to the connectionpool connect print (Pull #1251)
Don’t use the
uuidmodule to create multipart data boundaries. (Pull #1380)
read_chunked()on a closed response returns no chunks. (Issue #1088)
Add Python 2.6 support to
Added support for auth info in url for SOCKS proxy (Pull #1363)
Fixed missing brackets in
HTTP CONNECTwhen connecting to IPv6 address via IPv6 proxy. (Issue #1222)
Made the connection pool retry on
SSLError. The original
SSLErroris available on
MaxRetryError.reason. (Issue #1112)
Drain and release connection before recursing on retry/redirect. Fixes deadlocks with a blocking connectionpool. (Issue #1167)
Fixed compatibility for cookiejar. (Issue #1229)
pyopenssl: Use vendored version of
six. (Issue #1231)
Fixed SecureTransport issue that would cause long delays in response body delivery. (Pull #1154)
Fixed regression in 1.21 that threw exceptions when users passed the
socket_optionsflag to the
PoolManager. (Issue #1165)
Fixed regression in 1.21 that threw exceptions when users passed the
assert_fingerprintflag to the
PoolManager. (Pull #1157)
Improved performance of certain selector system calls on Python 3.5 and later. (Pull #1095)
Resolved issue where the PyOpenSSL backend would not wrap SysCallError exceptions appropriately when sending data. (Pull #1125)
Selectors now detects a monkey-patched select module after import for modules that patch the select module like eventlet, greenlet. (Pull #1128)
Reduced memory consumption when streaming zlib-compressed responses (as opposed to raw deflate streams). (Pull #1129)
Connection pools now use the entire request context when constructing the pool key. (Pull #1016)
PoolManager.connection_from_*methods now accept a new keyword argument,
pool_kwargs, which are merged with the existing
connection_pool_kw. (Pull #1016)
Add retry counter for
status_forcelist. (Issue #1147)
contribmodule for using SecureTransport on macOS:
urllib3.contrib.securetransport. (Pull #1122)
urllib3 now only normalizes the case of
https://schemes: for schemes it does not recognise, it assumes they are case-sensitive and leaves them unchanged. (Issue #1080)
Added support for waiting for I/O using selectors other than select, improving urllib3’s behaviour with large numbers of concurrent connections. (Pull #1001)
Updated the date for the system clock check. (Issue #1005)
ConnectionPools now correctly consider hostnames to be case-insensitive. (Issue #1032)
Outdated versions of PyOpenSSL now cause the PyOpenSSL contrib module to fail when it is injected, rather than at first use. (Pull #1063)
Outdated versions of cryptography now cause the PyOpenSSL contrib module to fail when it is injected, rather than at first use. (Issue #1044)
Automatically attempt to rewind a file-like body object when a request is retried or redirected. (Pull #1039)
Fix some bugs that occur when modules incautiously patch the queue module. (Pull #1061)
Prevent retries from occurring on read timeouts for which the request method was not in the method whitelist. (Issue #1059)
Changed the PyOpenSSL contrib module to lazily load idna to avoid unnecessarily bloating the memory of programs that don’t need it. (Pull #1076)
Add support for IPv6 literals with zone identifiers. (Pull #1013)
Added support for socks5h:// and socks4a:// schemes when working with SOCKS proxies, and controlled remote DNS appropriately. (Issue #1035)
Fixed AppEngine import that didn’t function on Python 3.5. (Pull #1025)
urllib3 now respects Retry-After headers on 413, 429, and 503 responses when using the default retry logic. (Pull #955)
Remove markers from setup.py to assist ancient setuptools versions. (Issue #986)
Disallow superscripts and other integerish things in URL ports. (Issue #989)
Allow urllib3’s HTTPResponse.stream() method to continue to work with non-httplib underlying FPs. (Pull #990)
Empty filenames in multipart headers are now emitted as such, rather than being suppressed. (Issue #1015)
Prefer user-supplied Host headers on chunked uploads. (Issue #1009)
CVE-2016-9015. Users who are using urllib3 version 1.17 or 1.18 along with PyOpenSSL injection and OpenSSL 1.1.0 must upgrade to this version. This release fixes a vulnerability whereby urllib3 in the above configuration would silently fail to validate TLS certificates due to erroneously setting invalid flags in OpenSSL’s
SSL_CTX_set_verifyfunction. These erroneous flags do not cause a problem in OpenSSL versions before 1.1.0, which interprets the presence of any flag as requesting certificate validation.
There is no PR for this patch, as it was prepared for simultaneous disclosure and release. The master branch received the same fix in Pull #1010.
Fixed incorrect message for IncompleteRead exception. (Pull #973)
iPAddresssubject alternative name fields in TLS certificates. (Issue #258)
Fixed consistency of
HTTPResponse.closedbetween Python 2 and 3. (Issue #977)
Fixed handling of wildcard certificates when using PyOpenSSL. (Issue #979)
SSLContextobjects for use in SSL/TLS negotiation. (Issue #835)
ConnectionPool debug log now includes scheme, host, and port. (Issue #897)
Substantially refactored documentation. (Issue #887)
Used URLFetch default timeout on AppEngine, rather than hardcoding our own. (Issue #858)
Normalize the scheme and host in the URL parser (Issue #833)
HTTPResponsecontains the last
Retryobject, which now also contains retries history. (Issue #848)
Timeout can no longer be set as boolean, and must be greater than zero. (Pull #924)
Removed pyasn1 and ndg-httpsclient from dependencies used for PyOpenSSL. We now use cryptography and idna, both of which are already dependencies of PyOpenSSL. (Pull #930)
Fixed infinite loop in
streamwhen amt=None. (Issue #928)
Try to use the operating system’s certificates when we are using an
SSLContext. (Pull #941)
Updated cipher suite list to allow ChaCha20+Poly1305. AES-GCM is preferred to ChaCha20, but ChaCha20 is then preferred to everything else. (Pull #947)
Updated cipher suite list to remove 3DES-based cipher suites. (Pull #958)
Removed the cipher suite fallback to allow HIGH ciphers. (Pull #958)
length_remainingto determine remaining content to be read. (Pull #949)
enforce_content_lengthto enable exceptions when incomplete data chunks are received. (Pull #949)
Dropped connection start, dropped connection reset, redirect, forced retry, and new HTTPS connection log levels to DEBUG, from INFO. (Pull #967)
Disable IPv6 DNS when IPv6 connections are not possible. (Issue #840)
key_fn_by_schemepool keying mechanism that can be overridden. (Issue #830)
Normalize scheme and host to lowercase for pool keys, and include
source_address. (Issue #830)
Cleaner exception chain in Python 3 for
_make_request. (Issue #861)
urllib3[socks]extra. (Issue #864)
Fixed signature of
ConnectionPool.closeso it can actually safely be called by subclasses. (Issue #873)
release_connstate across retries. (Issues #651, #866)
HTTPConnectionPool.ResponseCls, which defaults to
HTTPResponsebut can be replaced with a subclass. (Issue #879)
Fix packaging to include backports module. (Issue #841)
Added Retry(raise_on_status=False). (Issue #720)
Always use setuptools, no more distutils fallback. (Issue #785)
Dropped support for Python 3.2. (Issue #786)
Chunked transfer encoding when requesting with
chunked=True. (Issue #790)
Fixed regression with IPv6 port parsing. (Issue #801)
Append SNIMissingWarning messages to allow users to specify it in the PYTHONWARNINGS environment variable. (Issue #816)
Handle unicode headers in Py2. (Issue #818)
Log certificate when there is a hostname mismatch. (Issue #820)
Preserve order of request/response headers. (Issue #821)
contrib: SOCKS proxy support! (Issue #762)
Fixed AppEngine handling of transfer-encoding header and bug in Timeout defaults checking. (Issue #763)
Fixed regression in IPv6 + SSL for match_hostname. (Issue #761)
pip install urllib3[secure]on modern pip. (Issue #706)
pyopenssl: Fixed SSL3_WRITE_PENDING error. (Issue #717)
pyopenssl: Support for TLSv1.1 and TLSv1.2. (Issue #696)
Close connections more defensively on exception. (Issue #734)
read_chunkedto handle gzipped, chunk-encoded bodies without repeatedly flushing the decoder, to function better on Jython. (Issue #743)
ca_cert_dirfor SSL-related PoolManager configuration. (Issue #758)
httplibto work around conflicts with other Python 3 shims. (Issue #688)
Add support for directories of certificate authorities, as supported by OpenSSL. (Issue #701)
NewConnectionError, raised when we fail to establish a new connection, usually
'CERT_REQUIRED'. (Issue #650)
pip install urllib3[secure]will install Certifi and PyOpenSSL as dependencies. (Issue #678)
HTTPHeaderDictusable as a
headersinput value (Issues #632, #679)
Added urllib3.contrib.appengine which has an
URLFetchin a Google AppEngine environment. (Issue #664)
Dev: Added test suite for AppEngine. (Issue #631)
Fix performance regression when using PyOpenSSL. (Issue #626)
Passing incorrect scheme (e.g.
foo://) will raise
AssertionError(backwards compatible for now, but please migrate). (Issue #640)
Fix pools not getting replenished when an error occurs during a request using
release_conn=False. (Issue #644)
Fix pool-default headers not applying for url-encoded requests like GET. (Issue #657)
log.warning in Python 3 when headers are skipped due to parsing errors. (Issue #642)
Close and discard connections if an error occurs during read. (Issue #660)
Fix host parsing for IPv6 proxies. (Issue #668)
Separate warning type SubjectAltNameWarning, now issued once per host. (Issue #671)
httplib.IncompleteReadnot getting converted to
Migrate tests to Tornado 4. (Issue #594)
Append default warning configuration rather than overwrite. (Issue #603)
Fix streaming decoding regression. (Issue #595)
Fix chunked requests losing state across keep-alive connections. (Issue #599)
Fix hanging when chunked HEAD response has no body. (Issue #605)
InsecurePlatformWarningwhen SSLContext object is missing. (Issue #558)
Fix regression of duplicate header keys being discarded. (Issue #563)
Response.stream()returns a generator for chunked responses. (Issue #560)
Set upper-bound timeout when waiting for a socket in PyOpenSSL. (Issue #585)
Work on platforms without ssl module for plain HTTP requests. (Issue #587)
Stop relying on the stdlib’s default cipher list. (Issue #588)
Fix file descriptor leakage on retries. (Issue #548)
Removed RC4 from default cipher list. (Issue #551)
Header performance improvements. (Issue #544)
Fix PoolManager not obeying redirect retry settings. (Issue #553)
Pools can be used as context managers. (Issue #545)
Don’t re-use connections which experienced an SSLError. (Issue #529)
Don’t fail when gzip decoding an empty stream. (Issue #535)
Add sha256 support for fingerprint verification. (Issue #540)
Fixed handling of header values containing commas. (Issue #533)
Disabled SSLv3. (Issue #473)
Url.urlproperty to return the composed url string. (Issue #394)
Fixed PyOpenSSL + gevent
WantWriteError. (Issue #412)
MaxRetryError.reasonwill always be an exception, not string. (Issue #481)
Fixed SSL-related timeouts not being detected as timeouts. (Issue #492)
ssl.create_default_context()when available. (Issue #473)
InsecureRequestWarningfor every insecure HTTPS request. (Issue #496)
SecurityWarningwhen certificate has no
subjectAltName. (Issue #499)
Close and discard sockets which experienced SSL-related errors. (Issue #501)
.request(...). (Issue #513)
Respect timeout with HTTPS proxy. (Issue #505)
PyOpenSSL: Handle ZeroReturnError exception. (Issue #520)
Apply socket arguments before binding. (Issue #427)
More careful checks if fp-like object is closed. (Issue #435)
Fixed packaging issues of some development-related files not getting included. (Issue #440)
Allow performing only fingerprint verification. (Issue #444)
SecurityWarningif system clock is waaay off. (Issue #445)
Fixed PyOpenSSL compatibility with PyPy. (Issue #450)
ConnectionErrorhandling in Py3. (Issue #443)
Shuffled around development-related files. If you’re maintaining a distro package of urllib3, you may need to tweak things. (Issue #415)
Unverified HTTPS requests will trigger a warning on the first request. See our new security documentation for details. (Issue #426)
New retry logic and
urllib3.util.retry.Retryconfiguration object. (Issue #326)
All raised exceptions should now wrapped in a
urllib3.exceptions.HTTPException-extending exception. (Issue #326)
All errors during a retry-enabled request should be wrapped in
urllib3.exceptions.MaxRetryError, including timeout-related exceptions which were previously exempt. Underlying error is accessible from the
.reasonproperty. (Issue #326)
urllib3.exceptions.ProtocolError. (Issue #326)
Errors during response read (such as IncompleteRead) are now wrapped in
urllib3.exceptions.ProtocolError. (Issue #418)
Requesting an empty host will raise
urllib3.exceptions.LocationValueError. (Issue #417)
Catch read timeouts over SSL connections as
urllib3.exceptions.ReadTimeoutError. (Issue #419)
Apply socket arguments before connecting. (Issue #427)
Fix TLS verification when using a proxy in Python 3.4.1. (Issue #385)
urllib3.util.make_headers. (Issue #393)
urllib3.exceptions.ReadTimeoutError. (Issue #399)
Fixed proxy-related bug where connections were being reused incorrectly. (Issues #366, #369)
socket_optionskeyword parameter which allows to define
setsockoptconfiguration of new sockets. (Issue #397)
HTTPConnection.tcp_nodelayin favor of
HTTPConnection.default_socket_options. (Issue #397)
TypeErrorbug in Python 2.6.4. (Issue #411)
urllib3.utilnot being included in the package.
Fix AppEngine bug of HTTPS requests going out as HTTP. (Issue #356)
site-packagesas it’s only needed for the test suite. (Issue #362)
Added support for specifying
source_address. (Issue #352)
Improved url parsing in
urllib3.util.parse_url(properly parse ‘@’ in username, and blank ports like ‘hostname:’).
urllib3.connectionmodule which contains all the HTTPConnection objects.
urllib3.util.Timeout-related fixes. Also changed constructor signature to a more sensible order. [Backwards incompatible] (Issues #252, #262, #263)
backports.ssl_match_hostnameif it’s installed. (Issue #274)
urllib3.response.HTTPResponsewhich returns the number of bytes read so far. (Issue #277)
Support for platforms without threading. (Issue #289)
Expand default-port comparison in
HTTPConnectionPool.is_same_hostto allow a pool with no specified port to be considered equal to to an HTTP/HTTPS url with port 80/443 explicitly provided. (Issue #305)
Improved default SSL/TLS settings to avoid vulnerabilities. (Issue #309)
urllib3.poolmanager.ProxyManagernot retrying on connect errors. (Issue #310)
Disable Nagle’s Algorithm on the socket for non-proxies. A subset of requests will send the entire HTTP request ~200 milliseconds faster; however, some of the resulting TCP packets will be smaller. (Issue #254)
Increased maximum number of SubjectAltNames in
urllib3.contrib.pyopensslfrom the default 64 to 1024 in a single certificate. (Issue #318)
Headers are now passed and stored as a custom
urllib3.collections_.HTTPHeaderDictobject rather than a plain
dict. (Issue #329, #333)
Headers no longer lose their case on Python 3. (Issue #236)
urllib3.contrib.pyopensslnow uses the operating system’s default CA certificates on inject. (Issue #332)
retries=Falsewill immediately raise any exceptions without wrapping them in
MaxRetryError. (Issue #348)
Fixed open socket leak with SSL-related failures. (Issue #344, #348)
Added granular timeout support with new
urllib3.util.Timeoutclass. (Issue #231)
Fixed Python 3.4 support. (Issue #238)
More exceptions are now pickle-able, with tests. (Issue #174)
Fixed redirecting with relative URLs in Location header. (Issue #178)
Support for relative urls in
Location: ...header. (Issue #179)
urllib3.response.HTTPResponsenow inherits from
io.IOBasefor bonus file-like functionality. (Issue #187)
assert_hostname=Falsewhen creating a HTTPSConnectionPool will skip hostname verification for SSL connections. (Issue #194)
urllib3.response.HTTPResponse.stream(...)which acts as a generator wrapped around
.read(...). (Issue #198)
IPv6 url parsing enforces brackets around the hostname. (Issue #199)
Fixed thread race condition in
ProxyManagerrequests now include non-default port in
Host: ...header. (Issue #217)
Added HTTPS proxy support in
ProxyManager. (Issue #170 #139)
RequestFieldobject can be passed to the
fields=...param which can specify headers. (Issue #220)
urllib3.exceptions.ProxyErrorwhen connecting to proxy fails. (Issue #221)
Use international headers when posting file names. (Issue #119)
Improved IPv6 support. (Issue #203)
Contrib: Optional SNI support for Py2 using PyOpenSSL. (Issue #156)
Host: ...header if not given.
Improved SSL-related code.
cert_reqnow optionally takes a string like “REQUIRED” or “NONE”. Same with
ssl_versiontakes strings like “SSLv23” The string values reflect the suffix of the respective constant variable. (Issue #130)
socksipynow based on Anorov’s fork which handles unexpectedly closed proxy connections and larger read buffers. (Issue #135)
Ensure the connection is closed if no data is received, fixes connection leak on some platforms. (Issue #133)
Added SNI support for SSL/TLS connections on Py32+. (Issue #89)
Tests fixed to be compatible with Py26 again. (Issue #125)
Added ability to choose SSL version by passing an
ssl.PROTOCOL_*constant to the
HTTPSConnectionPool. (Issue #109)
Allow an explicit content type to be specified when encoding file fields. (Issue #126)
Exceptions are now pickleable, with tests. (Issue #101)
Fixed default headers not getting passed in some cases. (Issue #99)
Treat “content-encoding” header value as case-insensitive, per RFC 2616 Section 3.5. (Issue #110)
“Connection Refused” SocketErrors will get retried rather than raised. (Issue #92)
six, no longer overrides the global
sixmodule namespace. (Issue #113)
reasonproperty holding the exception that prompted the final retry. If
reason is Nonethen it was due to a redirect. (Issue #92, #114)
PoolManager.urlopen()from not redirecting more than once. (Issue #149)
Content-Type: text/plainfor multi-part encoding parameters that are not files. (Issue #111)
Pass strict param down to
httplib.HTTPConnection. (Issue #122)
Added mechanism to verify SSL certificates by fingerprint (md5, sha1) or against an arbitrary hostname (when connecting by IP or for misconfigured servers). (Issue #140)
Streaming decompression support. (Issue #159)
urllib3.add_stderr_logger()for quickly enabling STDERR debug logging in urllib3.
Native full URL parsing (including auth, path, query, fragment) available in
Built-in redirect will switch method to ‘GET’ if status code is 303. (Issue #11)
urllib3.PoolManagerstrips the scheme and host before sending the request uri. (Issue #8)
urllib3.exceptions.DecodeErrorexception for when automatic decoding, based on the Content-Type header, fails.
Fixed bug with pool depletion and leaking connections (Issue #76). Added explicit connection closing on pool eviction. Added
99% -> 100% unit test coverage.
Minor AppEngine-related fixes.
Improved url parsing. (Issue #73)
IPv6 url support. (Issue #72)
Removed pre-1.0 deprecated API.
Refactored helpers into a
Fixed multipart encoding to support list-of-tuples for keys with multiple values. (Issue #48)
Fixed multiple Set-Cookie headers in response not getting merged properly in Python 3. (Issue #53)
AppEngine support with Py27. (Issue #61)
encode_multipart_formdatafixes related to Python 3 strings vs bytes.
Fixed packaging bug of not shipping
test-requirements.txt. (Issue #47)
Fixed another bug related to when
sslmodule is not available. (Issue #41)
Location parsing errors now raise
urllib3.exceptions.LocationParseErrorwhich inherits from
Added Python 3 support (tested on 3.2.2)
Dropped Python 2.5 support (tested on 2.6.7, 2.7.2)
select.selectfor platforms that support it.
Queue.Queuefor more aggressive connection reusing. Configurable by overriding
ImportErrorduring install when
sslmodule is not available. (Issue #41)
PoolManagerredirects between schemes (such as HTTP -> HTTPS) not completing properly. (Issue #28, uncovered by Issue #10 in v1.1)
eventlet. Removed extraneous unsupported dummyserver testing backends. Added socket-level tests.
More tests. Achievement Unlocked: 99% Coverage.
dummyserverto its own root namespace module (used for testing).
Added hostname verification for
VerifiedHTTPSConnectionby vendoring in Py32’s
ssl_match_hostname. (Issue #25)
Fixed cross-host HTTP redirects when using
PoolManager. (Issue #10)
decode_contentbeing ignored when set through
urlopen. (Issue #27)
Fixed timeout-related bugs. (Issues #17, #23)
Fixed typo in
VerifiedHTTPSConnectionwhich would only present as a bug if you’re using the object manually. (Thanks pyos)
Made RecentlyUsedContainer (and consequently PoolManager) more thread-safe by wrapping the access log in a mutex. (Thanks @christer)
Made RecentlyUsedContainer more dict-like (corrected
__getitem__behaviour), with tests. Shouldn’t affect core urllib3 code.
Fixed a bug where the same connection would get returned into the pool twice, causing extraneous “HttpConnectionPool is full” log warnings.
PoolManagerwith LRU expiration of connections (tested and documented).
ProxyManager(needs tests, docs, and confirmation that it works with HTTPS proxies).
Added optional partial-read support for responses when
preload_content=False. You can now make requests and just read the headers without loading the content.
Made response decoding optional (default on, same as before).
Added optional explicit boundary string for
Convenience request methods are now inherited from
RequestMethods. Old helpers like
post_urlshould be abandoned in favour of the new
request(method, url, ...).
Refactored code to be even more decoupled, reusable, and extendable.
License header added to
Embiggened the documentation: Lots of Sphinx-friendly docstrings in the code and docs in
docs/and on https://urllib3.readthedocs.io/.
Embettered all the things!
Started writing this file.
Minor bug fixes, code cleanup.
Better unicode support.
assert_host_nameoptional parameter. Now compatible with proxies.
Added HTTPS support.
Minor bug fixes.
Refactored, broken backwards compatibility with 0.2.
API to be treated as stable from this version forward.
Added unit tests.