Contributing#

urllib3 is a community-maintained project and we happily accept contributions.

If you wish to add a new feature or fix a bug:

  1. Check for open issues or open a fresh issue to start a discussion around a feature idea or a bug. There is a Contributor Friendly tag for issues that should be ideal for people who are not very familiar with the codebase yet.

  2. Fork the urllib3 repository on Github to start making your changes.

  3. Write a test which shows that the bug was fixed or that the feature works as expected.

  4. Format your changes with black using command $ nox -rs format and lint your changes using command nox -rs lint.

  5. Send a pull request and bug the maintainer until it gets merged and published.

Setting up your development environment#

In order to setup the development environment all that you need is nox installed in your machine:

$ pip install --user --upgrade nox

Running the tests#

We use some external dependencies, multiple interpreters and code coverage analysis while running test suite. Our noxfile.py handles much of this for you:

$ nox --reuse-existing-virtualenvs --sessions test-2.7 test-3.7
[ Nox will create virtualenv if needed, install the specified dependencies, and run the commands in order.]
nox > Running session test-2.7
.......
.......
nox > Session test-2.7 was successful.
.......
.......
nox > Running session test-3.7
.......
.......
nox > Session test-3.7 was successful.

There is also a nox command for running all of our tests and multiple python versions.:

$ nox --reuse-existing-virtualenvs --sessions test

Note that code coverage less than 100% is regarded as a failing run. Some platform-specific tests are skipped unless run in that platform. To make sure the code works in all of urllib3’s supported platforms, you can run our nox suite:

$ nox --reuse-existing-virtualenvs --sessions test
[ Nox will create virtualenv if needed, install the specified dependencies, and run the commands in order.]
.......
.......
nox > Session test-2.7 was successful.
nox > Session test-3.6 was successful.
nox > Session test-3.7 was successful.
nox > Session test-3.8 was successful.
nox > Session test-3.9 was successful.
nox > Session test-3.10 was successful.
nox > Session test-3.11 was successful.
nox > Session test-pypy was successful.

Our test suite runs continuously on GitHub Actions with every pull request.

To run specific tests or quickly re-run without nox recreating the env, do the following:

$ nox --reuse-existing-virtualenvs --sessions test-3.8 -- pyTestArgument1 pyTestArgument2 pyTestArgumentN
[ Nox will create virtualenv, install the specified dependencies, and run the commands in order.]
nox > Running session test-3.8
nox > Re-using existing virtual environment at .nox/test-3-8.
.......
.......
nox > Session test-3.8 was successful.

After the -- indicator, any arguments will be passed to pytest. To specify an exact test case the following syntax also works: test/dir/module_name.py::TestClassName::test_method_name (eg.: test/with_dummyserver/test_https.py::TestHTTPS::test_simple). The following argument is another valid example to pass to pytest: -k test_methode_name. These are useful when developing new test cases and there is no point re-running the entire test suite every iteration. It is also possible to further parameterize pytest for local testing.

For all valid arguments, check the pytest documentation.

Getting paid for your contributions#

urllib3 has a pool of money hosted on Open Collective which the team uses to pay contributors for their work. That could be you, too! If you close an issue that is marked with the “Paid $X00” label then you’re eligible to be paid for your work.

  • Ensure that you’re able to receive funds from Open Collective for working on OSS. Consider your employment contract and taxes for possible restrictions.

  • Don’t “claim” issues or ask whether someone is already working on an issue. Instead, focus on creating a pull request which solves the issue. Once you create a pull request we can assign your account to the issue to ensure others don’t start working on it in parallel.

  • The amount you will be paid for the completing an issue is shown in the label (either $100, $200, $300, etc).

  • If you have questions about how to create an invoice on Open Collective try reading their FAQ.

  • If you have a proposal to work on urllib3 that’s not listed in the issue tracker please open an issue with your proposal and our team will discuss whether we’d pay for your work on your proposal.

  • If you have other questions get in contact with a maintainer in the urllib3 Discord channel or via email.

  • The list above isn’t an exhaustive list of criteria or rules for how/when money is distributed. The final say on whether money will be distributed is up to maintainers.

Contributing to documentation#

You can build the docs locally using nox:

$ nox -rs docs

While writing documentation you should follow these guidelines:

  • Use the top-level urllib3.request() function for smaller code examples. For more involved examples use PoolManager, etc.

  • Use double quotes for all strings. (Output, Declaration etc.)

  • Use keyword arguments everywhere except for method and url. (ie http.request("GET", "https://example.com", headers={...}) )

  • Use HTTPS in URLs everywhere unless HTTP is needed.

  • Rules for code examples and naming variables:

    • PoolManager instances should be named http. (ie http = urllib3.PoolManager(...))

    • ProxyManager instances should be named proxy.

    • ConnectionPool instances should be named pool.

    • Connection instances should be named conn.

    • HTTPResponse instances should be named resp.

    • Only use example.com or httpbin.org for example URLs

  • Comments within snippets should be useful, if what’s being done is apparent (such as parsing JSON, making a request) then it can be skipped for that section.

  • Comments should always go above a code section rather than below with the exception of print statements where the comment containing the result goes below.

  • Imports should be their own section separated from the rest of the example with a line of whitespace.

  • Imports should minimized if possible. Use import urllib3 instead of from urllib3 import X.

  • Sort imports similarly to isort, standard library first and third-party (like urllib3) come after.

  • No whitespace is required between the sections as normally would be in case of isort.

  • Add print statements along with a comment below them showing the output, potentially compressed.

  • This helps users using the copy-paste button immediately see the results from a script.

Releases#

A release candidate can be created by any contributor by creating a branch named release-x.x where x.x is the version of the proposed release.

  • Update CHANGES.rst and urllib3/__init__.py with the proper version number and commit the changes to release-x.x.

  • Open a pull request to merge the release-x.x branch into the master branch.

  • Integration tests are run against the release candidate on Travis. From here on all the steps below will be handled by a maintainer so unless you receive review comments you are done here.

  • Once the pull request is squash merged into master the merging maintainer will tag the merge commit with the version number:

    • git tag -a 1.24.1 [commit sha]

    • git push origin master --tags

  • After the commit is tagged Travis will build the tagged commit and upload the sdist and wheel to PyPI and create a draft release on GitHub for the tag. The merging maintainer will ensure that the PyPI sdist and wheel are properly uploaded.

  • The merging maintainer will mark the draft release on GitHub as an approved release.